The main cause of this disease is the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas producing insulin. Lack of insulin in the body ceases breakdown of glucose, leading to elevation of blood sugar levels. Other causes leading to the disease, have been mentioned below.
Autoimmunity: The cells of the immune system are subjected to self degradation. This is an issue of the autoimmune system that contributes maximum towards type 1 diabetes. The beta cells are annihilated, which makes the body incapable of producing insulin, thus, giving rise to the diabetic condition.
Viral Infections: Viruses like rubella and mumps trigger this disease. These two viruses are responsible for making an individual susceptible to diabetes. They can affect the insulin producing cells indirectly.
Foods: There are evidences showing that some foods might cause diabetes, although studies have not yet confirmed the fact. Sometimes, dairy products like, milk can trigger an autoimmune response causing diabetes. Food borne chemical toxins cause such infections. There are certain varieties of foods that influence the gut flora and its immune system. Wheat is known to have detrimental effects.
Genes: Gene expressions in the form of dominant or recessive traits are responsible for bringing about a histocompatibility disorder, characteristic to the aforementioned type of diabetes. The gene responsible is IDDM1, located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex II region in the chromosome 6. It results in improper display of antigens for T-cells.
Causes in Children
Children having a family history of diabetes, most often, suffer from this condition. It’s also known as insulin independent diabetes, as the patient requires external insulin shots to bring the glucose level back to normalcy. Glucose levels start building up in the blood giving rise to severe complications. In extreme cases or, if left undiagnosed, it can lead to multiple organ failure. Heart diseases, neuropathy, kidney diseases, etc., are also associated with the occurrence of this disease in children. Elevated glucose levels affect the eyes and cause retinal disorder. Children suffering from juvenile diabetes suffer from diabetes retinopathy, a condition that causes glaucoma, cataracts, and total or partial blindness.
The classic symptoms of this health condition are increased appetite (polyphagia), frequent urination (polyuria), weight loss, and increased thirst (polydipsia). Get an immediate glucose test done, if you observe these symptoms. This is one of the confirmatory tests for diagnosing this major health issue. Insulin shots, insulin inhalers, or insulin pumps are normally used by people to elevate the level of insulin inside the body. The causes associated with viral infections and other factors are definitely treated with different methods. The patient is advised to strictly follow the recommended diet that involves complete absence of sugar. Apart from all these, you must always keep a glucometer with yourself to maintain a check on the glucose level.